learning disorder,

The learning disorder term refers to the delay in development or the improper development of reading, writing and/or calculating skills. This is a special information processing pattern, due to a development and functioning of the central nervous system that is different from the common parameters.

One can speak about learning disorders when a child has lower results than his/her intellectual abilities and results do not correspond to the time spent learning. Learning disorder is a syndrome independent from the intelligence level and it can occur at all levels thereof, even superior ones.


Dyslexia is defined as the difficulty to read, manifested through slow reading, reading with errors or comprehension difficulties in texts read. Dyslexics are children whose reading pace is below average or for children who make more mistakes than average or have text comprehension problems.


Dysgraphia is the writing disorder manifested through graphomotor skills disorders (illegible letters, writing speed, placement in space, use of capital letters) and/or through language phonologic characteristics disorders (grammar, composing sentences, correct writing).


Dyscalculia represents the disorder related to learning and using mathematical notions, calculation operations and techniques. In the case of dyscalculia, the calculation skill remains considerably behind expectations, considering the schooling period and the child’s IQ.

neurological dysfunction,

According to neuropsychological theories, learning disorders are caused by a neurological dysfunction, by a minimal cerebral lesion, which, while it does not cause mental retard, perception (hearing or sight) or motor deficiencies, it can cause maturing delays or atypical functioning of certain cortical areas.

Cortical lesions can be caused by various prenatal lesions or traumas: high blood pressure during pregnancy, illnesses, hormonal disorders, viral infections, intoxications, excessive alcohol consumption, premature birth, complications at birth (depriving the brain from oxygen in the case of precipitated or extended births), central nervous system traumas occurred during childhood, accidents, severe diseases associated with high fever or other diseases affecting the brain (encephalitis or certain forms of epilepsy).


ADHD is an acronym and it means Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

This disorder occurs during childhood, but it can persist during adultness. The main symptoms in the case of children suffering from ADHD are lack of attentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.

Learning disorders can occur in association with ADHD.